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[FTP] Ha`ng kho^ng Vie^.t Nam.........3.



Ha`ng kho^ng Vie^.t Nam vo+'i nhu+~ng "phi vu." ga^y tha^'t thoa't ha`ng
trie^.u USD
Pho'ng su+. cu?a Tie^'n Thanh

Ky` 3: Nhu+~ng khoa?n "thu+o+?ng" bi' a^?n cho ddo^'i ta'c nu+o+'c ngoa`i

Tu+` vie^.c dda.i ly' "kha^'u tru+`" tie^`n hoa ho^`ng sai nguye^n ta('c...

Tha'ng 9-1992, Vietnam Airlines (VNA) chi'nh thu+'c khai tha'c ca'c chuye^'n
bay dde^'n DDa`i Loan. 3 tha'ng sau, va(n pho`ng dda.i die^.n VNA ta.i DDa`i
Loan ddu+o+.c chi'nh thu+'c tha`nh la^.p. Vie^.c ba'n ve' ddu+o+.c VNA ky'
ho+.p ddo^`ng vo+'i 6 dda.i ly' chi'nh cu?a DDa`i Loan. Ca'c dda.i ly' na`y
ddu+o+.c hu+o+?ng mo^.t khoa?n
hoa ho^`ng khuye^'n khi'ch vo+'i ly' do "thi. tru+o+`ng ba'n ve' ta.i DDa`i
Loan ca.nh tranh cao do co' 4 ha~ng ha`ng kho^ng cu`ng khai tha'c ddu+o+`ng
bay". Tuy
nhie^n, ddie^`u dda'ng no'i la` chi'nh sa'ch hoa ho^`ng khuye^'n khi'ch cu?a
VNA thay ddo^?i lie^n tu.c va` nhie^`u khi cao to+'i mu+'c "phi ly'": 16,44%
doanh thu\.
Chi'nh ddie^`u na`y dda~ ta.o ra nhie^`u ke~ ho+?, da^~n dde^'n vie^.c hai
dda.i ly' Vietlinh va` World Wide tu+. ddo^.ng kha^'u tru+` mu+'c hoa ho^`ng
khuye^'n khi'ch tha'ng
11-1994 tra'i nguye^n ta('c va` dde^n nay chu+a quye^'t toa'n ddu+o+.c la`
267.388 USD. Nguye^n nha^n cu?a vie^.c "tu+. ddo^.ng kha^'u tru+`" la` do
chi'nh sa'ch hoa
ho^`ng khuye^'n khi'ch ddu+o+.c co^ng bo^' (tha^'p ho+n mu+'c cu~) chu+a co'
hie^.u lu+.c, nhu+ng va`o tho+`i ddie^?m tha'ng 10-1994 trong khi vie^.c gia
ha.n chi'nh sa'ch
hoa ho^`ng khuye^'n khi'ch cu~ (16,44% doanh thu) dde^'n he^'t 30-11-1994
chu+a ddu+o+.c phe^ duye^.t thi` la~nh dda.o Ban Tie^'p thi. ha`nh kha'ch
cu?a VNA dda~
tu+. y' ddie^.n cho Tru+o+?ng dda.i die^.n VNA ta.i DDa`i Loan tho^ng ba'o
cho ca'c dda.i ly' cu?a VNA va^~n tie^'p tu.c ddu+o+.c hu+o+?ng mu+'c hoa
ho^`ng cu~. Chi'nh ddie^`u ddo'
dda~ da^~n dde^n vie^.c 2 dda.i ly' Vietlinh va` World Wide tu+. ddo^.ng
kha^'u tru+` mu+'c hoa ho^`ng tha'ng 11-1994 vo+'i so^' tie^`n ho+n 267.000
USD, va` sau na`y khi
Ban Ta`i chi'nh ke^' toa'n VNA ye^u ca^`u tra? la.i so^' tie^`n kha^'u tru+`
sai nguye^n ta('c no'i tre^n thi` ca? hai dda.i ly' na`y dde^`u kho^ng
ddo^`ng y'. DDie^`u dda'ng no'i la`
sai pha.m trong vie^.c kha^'u tru+` so^' tie^`n tre^n la` do su+. la`m a(n
tuy` tie^.n, thie^'u tra'ch nhie^.m cu?a nhu+~ng ngu+o+`i co' lie^n quan.
Vie^.c nhu+~ng ngu+o+`i co'
tra'ch nhie^.m cu?a VNA, cu. the^? la` nguye^n To^?ng gia'm ddo^'c Le^
DDu+'c Tu+', nguye^n Pho' to^?ng gia'm ddo^'c Nguye^~n DDu+'c Vinh... ddu+a
ra mo^.t mu+'c hoa
ho^`ng cao cho't vo't (chie^'m to+'i 16,44% doanh thu), sau ddo' la.i tuy`
tie^.n tho^ng ba'o tie^'p tu.c gia ha.n mu+'c hoa ho^`ng "phi ly'" na`y
kho^ng theo ddu'ng
tri`nh tu+., thu? tu.c dda~ khie^'n cho du+ lua^.n dda(.t nhie^`u nghi
va^'n. Lie^.u co' nhu+~ng ua^?n khu'c gi` dda(`ng sau nhu+~ng vie^.c la`m
sai nguye^n ta('c khi thu+.c hie^.n
chi'nh sa'ch hoa ho^`ng ba'n ve' ma` cuo^'i cu`ng, ngu+o+`i ddu+o+.c
hu+o+?ng kho^ng ai kha'c ho+n la` ca'c dda.i ly' nu+o+'c ngoa`i\?

... DDe^'n nhu+~ng sai pha.m dde^? ddo^'i ta'c nu+o+'c ngoa`i "hu+o+?ng
lo+.i" ba^'t chi'nh

Trong mo^.t tho+`i gian da`i, tu+` tha'ng 11-1994 dde^'n tha'ng 3-1998,
la~nh dda.o VNA dda~ co' ha`ng loa.t nhu+~ng sai pha.m nguye^m tro.ng da^~n
dde^'n nhu+~ng
thie^.t ha.i lo+'n ve^` kinh te^' ddo^`ng tho+`i la`m to^?n ha.i dde^'n uy
ti'n cu?a VNA\. Nhie^`u "phi vu." lie^n quan dde^'n ddo^'i ta'c nu+o+'c
ngoa`i dda~ vi pha.m pha'p lua^.t va`
ca'c quy ddi.nh cu?a Nha` nu+o+'c dde^? cuo^'i cu`ng VNA pha?i ga'nh chi.u
ha^.u qua?, co`n ddo^'i ta'c nu+o+'c ngoa`i hu+o+?ng lo+.i\. Xin ddu+o+.c
dde^` ca^.p dde^'n mo^.t so^' vu.
vie^.c cu. the^? ma` dde^'n nay ca'c co+ quan chu+'c na(ng da~ bu+o+'c
dda^`u la`m ro~.

Tru+o+'c he^'t la` vu. vie^.c Gia'm ddo^'c Co^ng ty Di.ch vu. ca?ng ha`ng
kho^ng Vie^.t Nam (SASCO) Pha.m Ho`ng Ha` thoa? thua^.n vo+'i mo^.t ddo^'i
ta'c nu+o+'c ngoa`i,
ta.o ddie^`u kie^.n cho ddo^'i ta'c na`y la`m "cai dda^`u da`i" a(n che^nh
le^.ch gia' cu?a nhie^`u kha'ch ha`ng, trong ddo' co' ca? kha'ch ha`ng
Vie^.t Nam. Nhu+~ng sai
pha.m cu?a Gia'm ddo^'c SASCO (thuo^.c To^?ng co^ng ty Ha`ng kho^ng Vie^.t
Nam) dda~ ta.o ddie^`u kie^.n cho ddo^'i ta'c nu+o+'c ngoa`i trong vo`ng
mo^.t na(m thu lo+.i
ba^'t ho+.p pha'p ho+n 5 ti? ddo^`ng va` tro^'n thue^' ho+n 700 trie^.u
ddo^`ng cho dde^'n khi vu. vie^.c bi. co+ quan chu+'c na(ng pha't hie^.n.
Thoa? thua^.n giu+~a SASCO vo+'i
ddo^'i ta'c nu+o+'c ngoa`i na`y dda~ ddu+o+.c tie^'n ha`nh kha'... ky` la.:
Nga`y 26-8-1994, ta.i Hong Kong, gia'm ddo^'c SASCO Pha.m Hoa`ng Ha` ky'
thoa? thua^.n vo+'i
gia'm ddo^'c co^ng ty TNHH Lincan co' ddi.a chi? dda(ng ky' ta.i Hong Kong,
theo ddo' SASCO cho Lincan thue^ 22 ba?ng qua?ng ca'o ta.i khu vu+.c sa^n
bay
Ta^n So+n Nha^'t trong 10 na(m, vo+'i gia' 450 USD/m2 be^` ma(.t qua?ng
ca'o/ tha'ng trong 2 na(m dda^`u\. Trong ho+n mo^.t na(m, ke^? tu+` khi ky'
thoa? thua^.n dde^'n
tha'ng 11-1995, Lincan dda~ cho ca'c ddo^'i ta'c kha'c thue^ la.i 18 ba?ng
qua?ng ca'o vo+'i gia' cao ga^'p ddo^i, thu lo+.i tra'i phe'p ho+n 5 ti?
ddo^`ng ma` hoa`n toa`n
kho^ng ke^ khai no^.p thue^' doanh thu va` thue^' lo+.i tu+'c. DDa(.c
bie^.t, khi ddo^.i kie^?m tra cho^'ng tha^'t thu nga^n sa'ch cu?a To^?ng
cu.c thue^' tie^'n ha`nh kie^?m tra
da~ pha't hie^.n Lincan chu+a co'... gia^'y phe'p kinh doanh ta.i Vie^.t
Nam, va` cu~ng chu+a co'... gia^'y phe'p kinh doanh qua?ng ca'o! "Phi vu."
la`m a(n giu+~a
SASCO va` Lincan la` hoa`n toa`n ba^'t ho+.p pha'p vi` chu+a ddu+o+.c SCCI
(nay la` Bo^. ke^' hoa.ch- DDa^`u tu+) va` Bo^. Va(n ho'a- Tho^ng tin ca^'p
phe'p theo quy
ddi.nh cu?a pha'p lua^.t Vie^.t Nam. Khi co+ quan chu+'c na(ng ye^u ca^`u
Lincan ke^ khai no^.p thue^' vo+'i so^' tie^`n ho+n 700 trie^.u ddo^`ng,
dda.i die^.n cu?a Lincan dda~
ne^u ro~: khi ky' thoa? thua^.n vo+'i SASCO Lincan kho^ng bie^'t thoa?
thua^.n na`y la` ba^'t ho+.p pha'p va` SASCO cu~ng kho^ng tho^ng ba'o
nhu+~ng ha^.u qua? se~
xa?y ra khi ky' ke^'t thoa? thua^.n. Ro~ ra`ng la` ne^'u co+ quan chu+'c
na(ng kho^ng va`o cuo^.c ki.p tho+`i thi` vo+'i mo^.t thoa? thua^.n ba^'t
ho+.p pha'p ke'o da`i trong 10
na(m, ddo^'i ta'c nu+o+'c ngoa`i na`y se~ thu lo+.i ba^'t chi'nh kho^ng
nho?. Ve^` phi'a Vie^.t Nam, ca' nha^n na`o "thu? lo+.i" va^~n co`n la`
mo^.t ca^u ho?i chu+a co' lo+`i dda'p,
nhu+ng SASCO no'i rie^ng va` VNA no'i chung va^~n pha?i ga'nh chi.u to^?n
tha^'t ca? ve^` kinh te^' la^~n uy ti'n.

Tu+o+ng tu+. nhu+ va^.y, vu. VNA ky' ho+.p ddo^`ng mua 2 ma'y bay IL-18 cu?a
ddo^'i ta'c Aircom (a'o) dda~ chuye^?n tie^`n dda(.t co.c kho^ng co' ba?o
la~nh cu?a nga^n
ha`ng da^~n dde^'n vie^.c tha^'t thoa't 180.000 USD, ddo^`ng tho+`i tie^u
to^'n ho+n 50.000 USD chi phi' cho vie^.c thue^ lua^.t su+ va` ca'c ddoa`n
co^ng ta'c ddi ddo`i no+. la`
mo^.t vi' du. ddie^?n hi`nh. Vu. vie^.c na`y dda~ ddu+o+.c Ba'o Thanh nie^n
pha't hie^.n ca'ch dda^y 2 na(m. DDe^'n nay, co+ quan chu+'c na(ng dda~ la`m
ro~ no^.i vu. va` nhu+~ng
no^.i dung ma` Ba'o Thanh nie^n ne^u xung quanh vu. vie^.c na`y la` hoa`n
toa`n chi'nh xa'c. Tuy nhie^n, ddie^`u dda'ng lu+u ta^m o+? dda^y la` cho
dde^'n nay, nhu+~ng
ca' nha^n sai pha.m trong vu. vie^.c na`y va^~n chu+a ddu+o+.c xu+? ly'.
DDa(.c bie^.t, theo dda'nh gia' cu?a co+ quan chu+'c na(ng, vie^.c ngu+o+`i
co' tra'ch nhie^.m chi'nh
trong va^'n dde^` na`y la` o^ng Nguye^~n Kha('c Hu+ng va^~n ddu+o+.c To^?ng
co^ng ty Ha`ng kho^ng Vie^.t Nam dde^` ba.t va` bo^? nhie^.m- tu+` pho' ban
le^n la`m Tru+o+?ng
ban Ky~ thua^.t- Va^.t tu+- Xa(ng da^`u- la` ddie^`u kho' hie^?u\.

DDu+o+.c bie^'t, hie^.n co+ quan chu+'c na(ng ddang xu'c tie^'n chua^?n bi.
chuye^?n ho^` so+ vu. vie^.c sang co+ quan pha'p lua^.t dde^? truy cu+'u
tra'ch nhie^.m hi`nh su+. ca'c
ca' nha^n sai pha.m ne^'u tu+` nay dde^'n cuo^'i na(m ha^.u qua? dda'ng
thie^.t ha.i kho^ng ddu+o+.c kha('c phu.c...

T.TH
(Ky` to+'i: Nhu+~ng "ga'nh na(.ng"
tre^n ddu+o+`ng pha't trie^?n)



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1999 Minh X. Nguyen