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[Ba'o Nha^n Da^n] Khai qua^.t kha?o co^? tha`nh Ha` No^.i:







Khai qua^.t kha?o co^? tha`nh Ha` No^.i:

"Kho ba'u" du+o+'i cha^n La^`u Co^ng chu'a


  Ti`m tha^'y ve^'t ti'ch kie^'n tru'c cu`ng ha`ng nghi`n di va^.t 
tho+`i Ly'- Tra^`n, ddo' la` ke^'t qua? ddo+.t khai qua^.t kha?o co^? 
ho.c ta.i La^`u Co^ng chu'a (thuo^.c Tha`nh co^? Ha` No^.i) tu+` tha'ng 
10-1998 to+'i 1-1999 do Ban Qua?n ly' di ti'ch va` danh tha('ng Ha` 
No^.i pho^'i ho+.p vo+'i Vie^.n Kha?o co^? ho.c Vie^.t Nam tie^'n ha`nh. 
Gia'o su+ Ha` Va(n Ta^'n -Vie^.n tru+o+?ng Vie^.n Kha?o co^? ho.c Vie^.t 
Nam - kha(?ng ddi.nh: "DDa^y la` ca? mo^.t trang li.ch su+? so^'ng 
ddo^.ng. Mo^.t kho ba'u tha^.t su+..
Chu'ng mo+? ra nhu+~ng trie^?n vo.ng to^'t dde.p trong vie^.c trie^?n 
khai nghie^n cu+'u Tha(ng Long nghi`n na(m va(n hie^'n".

  Tha`nh Tha(ng Long la` mo^.t di ti'ch li.ch su+? va(n ho'a tie^u 
bie^?u cho li.ch su+? da^n to^.c,	la` trung ta^m chi'nh tri. cu?a 
nu+o+'c DDa.i Vie^.t tu+` na(m 1010 to+'i 1802. Nhu+ng tra?i bao "ba~i  
be^? nu+o+ng da^u",nhu+~ng da^'u ve^'t va^.t cha^'t cu?a tha`nh Tha(ng 
Long  thu?a ban dda^`u nay co`n la.i vo^ cu`ng i't o?i. Vi` va^.y, ngay 
mo^.t vie^.c ddo+n gia?n nhu+ xa'c ddi.nh quy mo^,  vi. tri' cu?a Hoa`ng 
tha`nh cu~ng dda~ ga^y ra kho^ng bie^'t bao nhie^u tranh ca~i. Nha` su+?	
ho.c Tra^`n Huy Ba' cu`ng nhie^`u ho.c gia? kha'c cho ra(`ng Hoa`ng 
tha`nh Tha(ng Long tho+`i  Ly' -Tra^`n na(`m o+? khu vu+.c Qua^`n 
Ngu+.a. Nhu+ng quan ddie^?m na`y bi.nhie^`u nha` khoa  ho.c kha'c, nhu+ 
Tra^`n Quo^'c Vu+o+.ng, Vu~ Tua^n Sa'nla.i pha?n ba'c. Theo ho., su+? 
sa'ch kho^ng  he^` che'p co' mo^.t dichuye^?n na`o cu?a kinh ddo^ Tha(ng 
Long qua nhu+~ng trie^`u dda.i Ly' - Tra^`n - Le^. Tra'i la.i, nhu+~ng 
di ti'ch ghi trong ta`i lie^.u cu~ pho^'iho+.p vo+'i su+. ddie^`u tra 
ta.i  cho^~ cho phe'p ddoa'n ddi.nh ra(`ngtha`nh Tha(ng Long ddo+`i Ly' 
va^~n ddu+o+.c giu+~ nguye^n  ve.n vi. tri' cu~
cho dde^'n tho+`i Nguye^~n.

  Va^.y vi. tri' tha`nh co^? Ha` No^.i co' thay ddo^?i qua ca'c 
trie^`udda.i? Tha`nh Ly' - Tra^`n  co' pha?i chi'nh la` ne^`n mo'ng cu?a 
tha`nhtho+`i Le^, tho+`i Nguye^~n? Nhu+~ng ca^u ho?i na`y  co' the^? 
ma~i ma~i se~kho^ng co' lo+`i dda'p, ne^'u nhu+ kho^ng ti`m ddu+o+.c 
nhu+~ng ba(`ngchu+'ng  kha?o co^? cu. the^?. Tha'ng 8-1998, Bo^. Quo^'c 
pho`ng ba`n giaocho Ha` No^.i 4 di ti'ch  na(`m trong khu vu+.c tha`nh 
co^? Ha` No^.i:DDie^.n Ki'nh Thie^n, DDoan Mo^n, Cu+?a Ba('c va`  La^`u 
Co^ng chu'a (rie^ngDDie^.n Ki'nh Thie^n pha?i to+'i na(m 2000 mo+'i 
chi'nh thu+'c ba`n  giao).
Tha'ng 10-1998, theo Quye^'t ddi.nh so^' 1780 cu?a Bo^. Va(n ho'a - 
Tho^ngtin,  ngu+o+`i ta ba('t dda^`u khai qua^.t kha?o co^? ho.c ta.i 
La^`u Co^ngchu'a (so^' 7 ddu+o+`ng Hoa`ng	Die^.u).
 Die^.n ti'ch khu La^`u Co^ng chu'a (co`n go.i la` Ha^.u la^u hay 
Pagode desDames -  Chu`a Ca'c ba`) theo bie^n ba?n ba`n giao giu+~a Bo^. 
Quo^'c pho`ngva` u?y ban Nha^n da^n	tha`nh pho^' Ha` No^.i la` 2.392 
me't vuo^ng. Sa'chKinh tha`nh du+ ddi.a chi' soa.n ddo+`i  Minh Ma.ng 
go.i dda^y la` to`a Ha^.uddie^.n, co' the^? la` no+i o+? cu?a ca'c cung 
ta^`n my~ nu+~  trong ddoa`ntu`y tu`ng mo^~i khi theo vua ra Ha` No^.i. 
La^`u xa^y ba(`ng ga.ch, phi'adu+o+'i  hi`nh ho^.p, tre^n la` ca'c co^ng 
tri`nh kie^'n tru'c vo+'i 5 
ta^`ngddan xen nhau. Ba~i khai qua^.t  na(`m ca'ch la^`u chu+`ng 20-30 
me't. o+? ddo^. sa^u 1,2m, ddoa`n khai qua^.t pha't hie^.n mo^.t ddoa.n 
phe^'ti'ch kie^'n tru'c ro^.ng  3m, da`i 6m na(`m theo hu+o+'ng ba('c - 
nam. Va^.tlie^.u xa^y du+.ng go^`m dda', ga.ch. o+? nhu+~ng  cho^~ co`n 
tu+o+ng ddo^'inguye^n ve.n, co' the^? tha^'y ky~ thua^.t xa^y ca^'t kha' 
co^ng phu: dda' xe^'p lo't mo'ng o+? du+o+'i, ga.ch vo^` xa^y xe^'p o+? 
tre^n, ma.ch ra^'tpha(?ng va` si't sao. Ta.i ta^`ng  kie^'n tru'c na`y, 
ddoa.n khai qua^.tcu~ng ti`m ddu+o+.c ra^'t nhie^`u di va^.t co' nie^n 
dda.i the^' ky?  16-18(chu? ye^'u la` ga.ch, ngo'i o^'ng, ngo'i mu~i 
sen, ddo^` go^'m men, ddo^`sa`nh...). Tuy	nhie^n, trong ddo^'ng bu`n 
dda^'t, cu~ng ba('t dda^`u la^~nva`o  mo^.t so^' di va^.t Ly' - Tra^`n 
ra^'t  dde.p nhu+ ga.ch hoa sen, 
hoacu'c, ga.ch co' chu+~ "Vi~nh Ninh Tru+o+`ng". Vie^.c dda`o bo+'i  
ra^'t kho'kha(n vi` nu+o+'c nga^`m ca?n tro+?. Ma'y bo+m pha?i nga`y 
dde^m cha.y he^'tco^ng sua^'t.

  Sau ddo', ba('t dda^`u dde^'n giai ddoa.n 2 cu?a ddo+.t khai qua^.t. 
Pho'tie^'n si~ To^'ng Trung  Ti'n (Vie^.n Kha?o co^? ho.c Vie^.t Nam) 
ke^?:"Chu'ng to^i dda`o mo+? ro^.ng ho^' ra 172 me't  vuo^ng. To+'i 
ddo^. sa^u3,2m, ti`m tha^'y mo^.t ne^`n nha` ba(`ng dda', vo+'i mo^.t 
cha^n co^.tlo+'n, co'  nie^n dda.i Ly' - Tra^`n". Cha^n co^.t na`y la`m 
ba(`ng dda'hi`nh vuo^ng mo^~i ca.nh 70 cm.  Choa'n he^'t be^` ma(.t 
phie^'n dda' la`mo^.t bo^ng hoa sen 16 ca'nh. Be^n ca.nh ddo' la` ha`ng  
nghi`n di va^.t:Nhu+~ng vie^n ga.ch co`n la.i hai chu+~ "...Ta^y Qua^n" 
(Giang Ta^y Qua^n, mo^.t loa.i ga.ch dda~ tu+`ng ga(.p o+? Hoa Lu+ 
tru+o+'c ddo', nhu+ng la^`ndda^`u tie^n pha't hie^.n o+? Ha`  No^.i). 
Nhu+~ng ddoa.n trang tri' die^`mma'i vo+'i 2 con ro^`ng uo^'n khu'c 2 
be^n, o+? giu+~a la` hoa	va(n la'dde^`. Nhu+~ng vie^n ngo'i co' hoa la' 
ca'ch ddie^.u ra^'t dde.p. Nhu+~ngvie^n ga.ch men  ngo.c tho+`i Ly', men 
na^u tho+`i Tra^`n. Nhu+~ng ddo^`go^'m co' kha('c chu+~ "Quan". Nhu+~ng	
vie^n ga.ch mu~i ha`i... Mo^.tddie^`u dda(.c bie^.t: tuye^.t dda.i dda 
so^' ca'c di va^.t la` thua^`n 
Vie^.t.

 DDa'nh gia' y' nghi~a cu?a di va^.t ddo+.t khai qua^.t, Gia'o su+ Ha` 
Va(nTa^'n no'i: "La^`n dda^`u  tie^n, ta.i cu`ng mo^.t ddi.a ddie^?m, ta 
tha^'ytre^n ma(.t dda^'t la` kie^'n tru'c tho+`i Nguye^~n, co`n  be^n 
du+o+'i la`da^'u ti'ch cu?a ca'c tho+`i Ha^.u Le^, Tie^`n Le^, Ly' - 
Tra^`n cho^`ng le^nnhau. Bu+'c  tu+o+`ng dda^'t sa^u 3,2m ddo' la` ca? 
mo^.t trang li.ch su+?so^'ng ddo^.ng. DDa^y la` mo^.t ma?nh dda^'t  ly' 
tu+o+?ng dde^? la`m kha?oco^? ho.c, dde^? nghie^n cu+'u li.ch su+? 1.000 
na(m cu?a thu? ddo^ ta. 

Mo^.t kho ba'u thu+.c su+.!'.

  Theo Gia'o su+ Ha` Va(n Ta^'n, ddoa`n khai qua^.t se~ tie^'p tu.c 
la`mvie^.c ta.i La^`u Co^ng  chu'a, pha't hie^.n he^'t ca'c da^'u ve^'t 
kie^'ntru'c va` di va^.t tho+`i Ly'. Vie^.n Kha?o co^? ho.c  cu~ng se~ 
dde^` nghi.xa^y du+.ng ke^' hoa.ch khai qua^.t no^'t ca'c die^.n ti'ch 
co`n la.i tu+`>nay  dde^'n na(m 2001, mo^~i na(m khoa?ng 500 me't 
vuo^ng. DDo^`ng tho+`i,ddoa`n kie^'n nghi. ne^'u  co' ca'c hoa.t ddo^.ng 
tru`ng tu to^n ta.o o+? khuvu+.c Tha`nh co^? thi` chi? ne^n tie^'n ha`nh 
ddo^'i vo+'i  ca'c di>ti'chsa(~n co', co`n ca'c hoa.t ddo^.ng xa^y 
du+.ng mo+'i chi? ddu+o+.c phe'pthu+.c hie^.n sau  khi dda~ tie^'n ha`nh 
xong ca'c cuo^.c khai qua^.t theoddu'ng nguye^n ta('c cu?a kha?o co^? 
ho.c  ddo^ thi..

  Co`n tru+o+'c ma('t, theo Pho' tie^'n si~  Nguye^~n Va(n Hu`ng (Qua?n 
ly'di ti'ch va` danh  tha('ng Ha` No^.i), ta.i khu vu+.c La^`u Co^ng 
chu'a, naymai se~ mo.c le^n mo^.t khu ba?o ta`ng	ngoa`i tro+`i dde^? 
nha^n da^n Ha`No^.i va` ca? nu+o+'c dde^'n tham quan. Gia'o su+ Tra^`n 
Quo^'c  Vu+o+.ng no'i: "Ra^'t ca^`n mo^.t ba?o ta`ng nhu+ the^'!".

                                    Lu+u quang ddi.nh
                                    (Ba'o Lao ddo^.ng)

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1999 Minh X. Nguyen